CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY. Dept. of Civil engg, ACE, Banglore. Page 2. UNIT – 1. INTRODUCTION. Definition: Cement is defined in many ways as follows. [PDF] CE Concrete Technology (CT) Books, Lecture Notes, 2marks with answers, Important Part B 16marks Questions, Question Bank & Syllabus. By. Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download.
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Note of Advance concrete technology for fatyfivythe.tk of VTUCivil Engineering - CIVIL, handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. Cement and Concrete Technology (ECIV ). Second Semester Water: mixing and curing requirements, tests (lecture notes) (one hour). ❖ Admixtures. Effect of Superplasticizers on the Properties of Hardened Concrete · .. Road Note Number 4 Method · . XXVIII ▫ Concrete Technology. (xxviii).
The ACI code emphasizes this method of design. Must be able to perform the function, it is built for. Working stress design This design concept is based on elastic theory, assuming a straight line stress distribution along the depth of the concrete.
The actual loads or working loads acting on the structure are estimated and members are proportioned on the basis of certain allowable stresses in concrete and steel. The allowable stresses are fractions of the crushing strength of concrete fc' and the yield strength fy.
Because of the differences in realism and reliability over the past several decades, the strength design method has displaced the older stress design method. Limit state design It is a further step in the strength design method.
It indicates the state of the member in which it ceases to meet the service requirements, such as, loosing its ability to withstand external loads or local damage. According to limit state design, reinforced concrete members have to be analyzed with regard to three limit states: 1.
Load carrying capacity involves safety, stability and durability 2. Deformation deflection, vibrations, and impact 3. The formation of cracks The aim of this analysis is to ensure that no limiting sate will appear in the structural member during its service life.
Fundamental assumptions for Reinforced Concrete's Behavior Reinforced concrete's sections are heterogeneous, because they are made up of two different materials - steel and concrete.
Therefore, proportioning structural members by ultimate stress design is based on the following assumptions: 1. Strain in concrete is the same as in reinforcing bars at the same level, provided that the bond between the concrete and steel is adequate 2. Strain in concrete is linearly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.
The stress in the elastic range is equal to the strain multiplied by Es. Plane cross sections continue to be plane after bending. Cracked concrete is assumed to be not effective Before cracking, the entire cross section is effective in resisting the external moments. The method of elastic analysis, assuming an ideal behavior at all levels of stress is not valid. At high stresses, non-elastic behavior is assumed, which is in close agreement with the actual behavior of concrete and steel.
At ultimate strength, the maximum strain at the extreme compression fibers is assumed to be equal to 0. At the ultimate strength, the shape of the compressive stress distribution may be assumed to be rectangular, parabolic or trapezoidal. Loads Structural members must be designed to support specific loads. Loads are those forces for which a structure should be proportioned. Loads that act on structure can be divided into three categories.
Dead loads 2. Live loads 3. Environmental loads Dead Loads: Dead loads are those that are constant in magnitude and fixed in location throughout the lifetime of the structure.
It includes the weight of the structure and any permanent material placed on the structure, such as roofing, tiles, walls etc. They can be determined with a high degree of accuracy from the dimensions of the elements and the unit weight of the material. Live loads: Live loads are those that may vary in magnitude and may also change in location. Live loads consists chiefly occupancy loads in buildings and traffic loads in bridges. Live loads at any given time are uncertain, both in magnitude and distribution.
Environmental loads: Consists mainly of snow loads, wind pressure and suction, earthquake loads i.
Soil pressure on subsurface portion of structures, loads from possible ponding of rainwater on flat surfaces and forces caused by temperature differences. Like live loads, environmental loads at any given time are uncertain both in magnitude and distribution. ACI Code Safety Provisions Structural members must always be proportioned to resist loads greater than service or actual loads, in order to provide proper safety against failure.
In the stenght design method, the member is designed to resist the factored loads which are obtained by multiplying the factored loads with live loads. Different factors are used for different loadings. Segregation 4.
Hydration 5. Strength gravel and sand and Batching of Concrete 5.
Civil Concrete Technology Lectures Notes Download
Water 2. Mixing of Concrete tightness ingredients impermeabil 3. Placing of Concrete ity Concreting 6. Rate of 4. Compaction of Concrete Strength gain of Concrete 1. Tests on Concrete Concrete Mix Design Mix design can be defined as the process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible.
Design of concrete mix requires Planning means to determine the workability required, the type of concrete to be made, method of placing and mode of transportation, etc. Always plan every step before any concrete is delivered. Proper planning avoids Retarding mixtures 3. Fly ash Site preparation is to clear the way for concrete to its place 4. Air entraining admixtures 5. Water reducing admixtures of installment, to identify joints of installment etc.
The following steps should be taken before any concrete is placed Cold Weather Concreting 2.
Reinforced cement concrete: Since concrete is a brittle material and is strong in compression. It is weak in tension, so steel is used inside concrete for strengthening and reinforcing the tensile strength of concrete.
The steel must have appropriate deformations to provide strong bonds and interlocking of both materials. When completely surrounded by the hardened concrete mass it forms an integral part of the two materials, known as "Reinforced Concrete". Advantages and disadvantages of reinforced concrete Flexural Strength of Concrete Reinforced Concrete is a structural material, is widely used in many types of structures.
It is competitive with steel if economically designed and executed. Advantages of reinforced concrete It has relatively high compressive strength It has better resistance to fire than steel It has long service life with low maintenance cost In some types of structures, such as dams, piers and footings, it is most economical structural material It can be cast to take the shape required , making it widely used in pre-cast structural components It yields rigid members with minimum apparent deflection Yield strength of steel is about 15 times the compressive strength of structural concrete and well over times its tensile strength By using steel, cross sectional dimesions of structural members can b ereduced e.
In order to fulfill its purpose, the structure must meet its conditions of safety, serviceability, economy and functionality. Serviceability: No excessive Strength design method It is based on the ultimate strength of the structural members assuming a failure condition, whether due to the crushing of concrete or due to the yield of reinforced steel bars.
Although there is additional strength in the bar after yielding due to Strain Hardening , this additional strength in the bar is not considered in the analysis or design of the reinforced concrete members. In the strength design method, actual loads or working loads are multiplied by load factor to obtain the ultimate design loads.
The load factor represents a high percentage of factor for safety required in the design. The ACI code emphasizes this method of design.
Must be able to perform the function, it is built for. Working stress design This design concept is based on elastic theory, assuming a straight line stress distribution along the depth of the concrete. The actual loads or working loads acting on the structure are estimated and members are proportioned on the basis of certain allowable stresses in concrete and steel. The allowable stresses are fractions of the crushing strength of concrete fc' and the yield strength fy.
Because of the differences in realism and reliability over the past several decades, the strength design method has displaced the older stress design method.
Limit state design It is a further step in the strength design method. It indicates the state of the member in which it ceases to meet the service requirements, such as, loosing its ability to withstand external loads or local damage. The paste, composed essentially of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine small and coarse larger aggregates.
Al Kourd Eng.
Adel Hammad Introduction: constituents, history, advantages, limitations and applications lecture notes one hour. Aggregates:physical and mechanical properties lecture 1, 2 and 3. Though original research reported in proceedings and post-proceedings represents the core of LNCE, edited volumes of exceptionally high quality and interest may also be considered for publication.
CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY Note pdf download - handwrittenLectureNotes for free
It covers the construction materials content for undergraduate courses in civil engineering and related subjects and serves as a valuable reference for professionals working in the construction industry.Live loads: The revised compression steel area acting at fs must provide the same force as the trial steel area that was assumed to act at fy.
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Workability 3. Civil Engineering Practical Notebooks Concrete is a stone like substance obtained by permitting a carefully proportioned mixture of cement.
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