Origin and meaning of pdf: by , initialism (acronym) for portable document format, a generic term. See more. In later times the subject of English etymology has for the most part been treated as a subordinate department in the dictionaries of the language, and the choice. This dictionary forms part of the project Indo-European Etymological the project is to compile a new and comprehensive etymological dictionary of the.

Etymology Dictionary Pdf

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even for an etymological dictionary, but the system I have devised has small British etymological dictionary: words that, little known in Britain, form part of the. An etymological dictionary of the English language ().pdf - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Title: An. Thus Richardson's Dictionary is an admirable store-house of quotations . In many cases, writers of ' etymological ' dictionaries do not trouble to learn even the .

folk etymological dictionary pdf

European Etymological Dictionary series, have also been The Online Etymology Dictionary also linked to a blog post, "Butterfly Free pdf. Folk etymology sometimes oc-. Howard Jackson The study of the form, Although a few other examples could be given, it must be acknowledged that folk etymology. Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins. Aaron lily also honors Aaron, but the name DTs delirium tremens. What IS a Name? Dictionaries exclusively etymological.

folk etymological dictionary pdf

Criticism, etc. The original meaning of "white" in Belarus's name is unknown. Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia ; According to his aproach, modern etymological dictionaries typologically fall into two Folk etymology - Wikipedia ; Folk etymology or reanalysis — sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation — is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Trends in linguistics. Documentation ; 1, Contents: v.

Words beginning with A v. Words beginning with E and I v. Words beginning with H v. Words beginning with K v.

Words beginning with L Indices to volumes 15 v. Words beginning with M v. Words beginning with N v. Words beginning with This fascinating dictionary explores the development of meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of over 25, English words.

These cannot all be cognates by form under any circumstances; again, they are rather semantic or lexical equivalents just like any other words in different languages.

All these words have Arabic cognates as a matter of fact. Its German equivalent hemd obtains direct from Arabic hidm 'dress' via reordering and lexical shift. That can't be any simpler. Similarly, history has no cognates in German. As can be seen, all these words have similar forms and meanings which underwent different sound changes in those languages.

Thus, it can be clearly seen that Arabic links all the languages together. Lengthy Derivation and Sub-derivation The second problem relates to innumerable instances of unnecessarily lengthy derivation and sub-derivation with two or more parts sometimes as in is, history, beautiful, say, noble 2 parts , divorce, and ring, and so on Jassem e-f.

In all such cases, Arabic cognate s are not only direct but also shorter, clearer, and more sensible. Its Arabic cognates qarn 'horn; a circular-shaped object' or naqar 'to knock, beat, sound' are direct and self-evident as each agrees with it formally and semantically: i.

Thus both meanings of ring derive from the merger of two formally similar but semantically different Arabic words see 6 below. Likewise, Jassem's c investigation of the Arabic origins of 'fashion and modeling terms' yielded other examples of unnecessarily lengthy derivation and sub-derivation with two or more parts as in costume 3 parts , cover 2 parts , dress, fabric, fashion, furl, glove, model, pullover, twist, and so on.

To illustrate, glove, for instance, is erroneously derived from i ga- 'collective prefix' and ii lofi 'hand' in Latin, which does not make much sense, semantically- speaking. Its true Arabic cognate s kaff 'palm of the hand', alkaff 'the hand' via reordering or ghilaaf 'cover' are self-evident as each agrees with it formally and semantically. There are hundreds, in fact thousands, of such examples that were encountered in earlier studies Jassem whose treatment will be beyond the scope of this review.

Uncertain, Unknown, or Possible Derivations Uncertain, unknown, or possible derivations is a grave problem besetting the work. According to some estimates, a quarter of English and Indo-European words are of unknown origins. Jassem f abounds with such cases like beautiful, girl, comely, merry, criminal, Goethe, and de Gaulle, for instance. Instead, deriving them from Arabic is not only shorter but also more logical, which, at the same time, preserves both the form and meaning of cognate words.

To illustrate, take girl which is given three or four objectionable or uncertain derivations, some of which do not make sense, formally and semantically speaking. These are as follows: Girl gal has two parts, the second of which is —l, a diminutive suffix. Arabic ghirl 'uncircumcised child' via lexical shift.

The diminutive suffix —l e in girl, gyrle is obtained direct from Arabic al 'the' via morphological shift. The Arabic origins of the word and its parts thus resolve all the guesswork and uncertainty in English and Indo-European languages see 1 above. In his study of 'fashion and modeling terms', Jassem c gave other examples. In fact, 21 out of Take chemise and German hemd 'shirt' see 1 10 above , for instance, the latter of which makes more sense if derived from Arabic hidm 'dress, clothing' via reordering and lexical shift.

Therefore, in all such cases, a direct derivation from Arabic is not only shorter but also more logical, which, at the same time, preserves both the form and meaning of cognate words. Thus Arabic abolishes such uncertainties of all types. These hypothetical, fictitious, mythical, or superstitious languages have no www.

Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series

Linking them to Arabic is not only a natural, geographical choice but also a linguistically logical and substantive necessity. The data at hand attests to that, speaking better than words.

Therefore, reconstructing PIE, for example, is futile, meaningless, and a waste of time and effort especially when the alternative is already there and close at hand Jassem f.

Deriving it straight from Arabic alghir via reordering is the only natural choice and best fitting answer. The matter dos not stop here; in fact, Arabic can provide cognates for words with the same sequence g-r such as gray, gore. Now what came or was before Arabic? Arabic is the end language before which there was no prototype; it is the language that inherited and preserved the first human language almost intact for several reasons, which do not concern us here see Jassem h. Formally Similar but Semantically Different Words Formally similar but semantically different words are quite common in English and the so- called Indo-European languages like English gist, ghost, august, aghast and German Geschichte 'story, history' Jassem f.

All these words have similar forms i.

However, their link can only be captured by Arabic in which their cognates are as follows: As can be seen, all the Arabic cognates have the same or similar form- i.

Thus different sound changes in different languages often led to the differences amongst such cognates. Of course, there are other examples in the same study like: As the central and common meaning is 'beautiful' amongst them all, their direct Arabic cognate is zain, zeena t n 'beautiful' which underwent different sound changes and lexical split in different languages.

Again, only Arabic can account for all that in full. In Jassem's f study of 'the Arabic origins and development of English, German, French, and Indo-European languages' and Jassem's g study of 'vocabulary learning and teaching', two bigger such lists were given as follows.

The adjective areal is from Arabic al-3araa' 'the open space' via morphological shift. That is, the suffix —al is from the Arabic definite article al 'the' via morphological shift Jassem d. Eros erotica is from Arabic 'air 'penis' cf.

The suffixes —s and —t are morphologically conditioned variants, both of which derive from Arabic —t via morphological split; —ic is from dialectal Arabic —ij see Jassem a, f, a.

Aura is from Arabic 'uaar 'sun's heat' Jassem e. A related issue is words with formal difference and semantic similarity, e. Polysemy or Semantic Multiplicity Polysemy, which is the multiple senses and meanings a word has, is a characteristic feature and major problem of English and European vocabulary. More precisely, countless English words have many senses which seem to be quite unrelated to one another as in free, dwell, bachelor, mean, rock, write.

There are several semantic theories for handling such matter see Jassem g for a survey. However, the most plausible and realistic account is that, according to lexical root or radical linguistic theory Jassem , such meanings developed as the result of sound mergers, affecting formally similar but semantically different Arabic cognates.

As to the German word twellen, it seems to be a false cognate, which comes straight from Arabic Tawwal 'to be late; to lengthen'.

Thus, the different senses come from formally similar but semantically different Arabic words, merged into one. Almost all polysemous words in English, German, and French, e.

Let's take another very common exemplary word. In English, write originally meant 'cut', and then 'write' Campbell ; , based on the Oxford English Dictionary French www.

English reference dictionary

French ecrire 'to write' derives from the same Arabic root qara'a iqra' 'to read read! Arabic Negligence and its Restriction to Loans Finally, despite the very obvious relationships linguistically, geographically, and physically between Arabic and English and the so-called Indo-European languages, there is an inexplicably total avoidance and neglect of Arabic as their immediate progenitor and its restriction to a few loans here and there.

The attested total number of Arabic loans in English dictionaries varies, ranging between although some studies put it at or As has already been seen in Jassem's 52 earlier works, all the words of English, e. The same applies to German, French, and Indo-European words as well. Why has this neglect been so? This needs a separate portfolio, indeed. One only has to recall, though, that the modern European civilization and culture inherited Arabic science and culture in full through contact in Western Europe, especially Spain, Portugal, France, and Italy without which it would have been 'unthinkable'.

As the Institute of Islamic Studies of the University of Zaragoza xi-ii rightly put it, For obvious reasons, the study of AA Andalusi Arabic … is also a subject of paramount importance to those who seek a deeper insight into the medieval literatures and cultures of Western Europe, especially of Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Southern France, which could not be and were not impervious to the powerful and multifarious impact of Medieval Islamic civilization on language, literature, science, politics, trade, etc.

Without it, the Renaissance as it occurred would simply have been unthinkable. Whether or not some in the West are currently ready to acknowledge this fact and live with its implications, no trustworthy assessment of that impact is attainable without something more than a superficial acquaintance with Arabic and Islamic culture, and with AA in particular.

Italic mine Other well-known European scholars agree with that assertion. Le Bon reiterated similar views in his The world of Islamic civilization, according to which European universities and academic institutions depended on Islamic and Arabic academic resources for five centuries. Summary To summarize, etymological dictionaries in general and etymonline in particular do provide an important guide for tracing especially the Arabic origins of English, German, French, www.

However, they, like all other Western dictionaries, are, in fact, replete with many fundamental and structural problems as has already been briefly outlined, the solution of which lies in Arabic and Arabic only Jassem References Algeo, J. The origins and development of the English language.


Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Campbell, L. Historical linguistics: An introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Harper, Douglas. Online etymology dictionary. Ibn Manzoor, Abi Alfadl Almisri. Lisan al3arab.

Beirut: Dar Sadir. Hunke, Sigrid. Germany: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Institute of Islamic Studies of the University of Zaragoza A descriptive and comparative grammar of Andalusi Arabic.

Handbook of Oriental Studies Vol. Maribel Fierro, M. Sukru-Hanioglu, and Kees Versteegh. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Jassem, Zaidan Ali.

Phonological variation and change in immigrant speech: A sociolinguistic study of a Arab-Israeli war immigrant speech community in Damascus, Syria. Dirasa fi 3ilmi allugha al-ijtima3i: Bahth lughawi Sauti ijtima3i fi allahajat al3arabia alshamia muqaranatan ma3a alingleeziyya wa ghairiha.

Kuala Lumpur: Pustaka Antara. Lectures in English and Arabic sociolinguistics, 2 Vols.Update task definition ecs. Journal for the Study of English Linguistics 2 1.

Leiden and Boston: Brill. The case of Syrian Arabic. International Journal of English language, literature, and Translation 1 1: Oxford: Clarenden Press.

The Arabic origins of "family words" in English and European languages: A lexical root theory approach. Oxford picture dictionary pdf vk.